Explains how to convert a few meteorological and non-meteorological parameters.

Length

     1 kilometer (km)  = 1000 meters (m)
                       = 0.6214 statute mile (mi)   
                       = 0.5396 nautical mile (n mi)
                       = 3281 feet (ft)


     1 mile (mi)       = 5280 feet (ft)
                       = 1609 meters (m)   
                       = 1.61 kilometers (km)


     1 meter (m)       = 100 centimeters (cm)                
                       = 3.281 feet (ft)
                       = 39.37 inch (in)


     1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeters (mm)
                       = 0.3937 inch (in)
                       = 0.01 meter (m)


     1 micrometer (um) = 10 (to the power of -6) m
                       = 0.0001 cm


     1 inches (in)     = 2.54 cm
                       = 0.08 ft


     1 degree latitude = 111 km
                       = 60 nautical mi
                       = 69 statute mi

Speed

     1 m/s  = 3.60 km/h
            = 2.24 mi/hr
            = 1.94 knots
     
     1 knot = 1 n mi/hr
            = 1.15 mi/hr
            = 0.51 m/s
            = 1.85 km/hr
     
     1 mile per hour (mi/hr)      = 0.87 knot
                                  = 0.45 m/s
                                  = 1.61 km/hr
     
     1 kilometer per hour (km/hr) = 0.54 knot
                                  = 0.62 mi/hr
                                  = 0.28 m/s

Force

     1 dyne                    = 1 gram per centimeter per second per second
                               = 2.2481 X 10 (to the power of -6) pound (lb)
     
     1 newton (N)              = 1 kilogram per meter per second per second
                               = 10 (to the power of 5) dynes
                               = 0.2248 lb

Area

     1 square centimeter (cm2) = 0.15 in squared
     
     1 square inch (in2)       = 6.45 cm squared
     
     1 square meter (m2)       = 10.76 ft squared
     
     1 square foot (ft2)       = 0.09 m squared

Volume

     1 meter cubed            = 10 (to the power of 6) cm cubed
     
     1 liter (l)              = 10 (to the power of -3) m cubed
                              = 1.06 quarts (qt)
                              = 0.264 gallons (gal)
                              = 1000 cm cubed
     
     1 cubic centimeter (cm3) = 0.06 in cubed
     
     1 cubic inch (in3)       = 16.39 cm cubed

Mass

     1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g)
                     = 2.205 pounds (lb)
     
     1 gram (g)      = 0.0353 ounce (oz)
                     = 0.00220 lb
     
     1 metric ton    = 1000 kg
                     = 2205 lb

Pressure

     1 millibar (mb)         = 100 pascals (Pa)
                             = 100 newtons/meter squared (N/m squared)
                             = 0.0145 lb/in squared
                             = 0.750 mm of mercury (Hg)
                             = 1000 dynes/cm squared
    
     1 standard atmosphere   = 1013.2 mb
                             = 101.3 kPa      
                             = 14.70 lb/in squared
                             = 760 mm Hg
                             = 29.92 in Hg
     
     1 inch of mercury       = 33.865 mb

     1 millimeter of mercury = 1.3332 mb
         
     1 pascal                = 1N/m(squared)

Energy

     1 calorie (cal) = 4.186 joules (J)
                     = 4.186 x 10 (to the power of 7) ergs
                     = 1.16 x 10 (to the power of -6) kilowatt-hour (kW h) 
                     = 3.97 x 10 (to the power of -3) British thermal units (Btu)
                     = 1 langley-cm squared (ly cm squared)

Power

     1 watt (W)         = 1 J/s
                        = 14.3353 cal/min  
                        = 0.239 cal/s
                        = 0.0569 Btu/min
      
     1 cal/min          = 0.06973

     1 horse power (hp) = 746 W

Temperature

To convert degress Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius:
  Subtract 32 degrees from Fahrenheit, then divide by 1.8


To convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit:
  Multiply Celsius by 1.8, then add 32 degrees


To convert degrees Celsius to Kelvins (K):
  Add 273 to Celsius temperature, as    K = Degrees Celsius + 273

Power per Unit Area

     1 W/m2 = 0.00143 ly/min
            = 2.065 ly/day
            = 0.754 kly/yr
            = 0.754 kly/yr
            
     1 ly/min = 697.5 W/m(squared)

Powers of Ten

nano     one-billionth   = 10 (to the power of -9) = 0.000000001
micro    one-millionth   = 10 (to the power of -6) = 0.000001
milli    one-thousandth  = 10 (to the power of -3) = 0.001
centi    one-hundredth   = 10 (to the power of -2) = 0.01
deci     one-tenth       = 10 (to the power of -1) = 0.1
hecto    one hundred     = 10 (to the power of 2)  = 100
kilo     one thousand    = 10 (to the power of 3)  = 1000
mega     one million     = 10 (to the power of 6)  = 1,000,000
giga     one billion     = 10 (to the power of 9)  = 1,000,000,000

Some Properties of the Earth

Mass of the earth                        = 5.98 X 20 (to the power 
                                           of 24) kg
Mass of the oceans                       = 1.32 X 10 (to the power 
                                           of 21) kg
Mass of the earth's atmosphere           = 5.29 X 10 (to the power 
                                           of 18) kg
Mean radius of the earth                 = 6371 km
Mean distance between earth and the sun  = 149.7 X 10 (to the power
                                           of 6) km
Mean gravitational acceleration 
  at earth's surface                     = 9.807 m/s(squared)
Speed of rotation of a surface point 
 on the earth's equator                  = 460 m/s
Angular velocity of the earth            = 7.29 X 10 (to the power 
                                           of -5) /s

University of North Dakota / School of Aerospace Sciences / Atmospheric Science Department

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